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Twelve FGDs were conducted with key populations and 12 with the general population .

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Masculinity discourse involved discussions on men proving their manhood by engaging in HAS especially when women initiated the practice.

After each FGDs, 2-4 participants were selected to participate in IDIs in order to explore personal experiences and hence, differentiate the normative views as presented in FGDs to the real practice of individuals.

A total of 81 IDIs were conducted with the following: 8 truck drivers (Morogoro region); 9 women working in FRFs and 8 fishermen from Mwanza region; 8 female sex workers from Dar Es Salaam; 16 rural general population and 16 urban general population from Tanga region; and 16 rural general population from Morogoro region.

The reported use of condoms was low due to the perceptions that condoms were unsuitable for anal sex, but also perceptions among some participants that anal sex was safer than vaginal sex.

Discourses among young women and adult men across the study populations were supportive of HAS.

This study employed ethnographic research design involving 81 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 24 focus group discussions (FGDs).

A combination of IDIs and FGDs were used to explore complex issues related to sexual behaviour among the general population as well as key populations, and to obtain a more detailed understanding of how people talked about HAS.

This included men and women from the general population; women working in food and recreational facilities (FRFs); female sex workers (FSWs) working in brothels and streets; male truck drivers; and fishermen working on Lake Victoria.

Sex workers [ Data collection commenced with FGDs which were instrumental in initiating the discussions in relation to how people talk about HAS, and the meanings they attach to the practice.

The study was implemented from July until October 2012 at four sites in Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Mwanza and Tanga regions as a collaborative effort of key Tanzanian institutions.

Given that the primary goal of the study was to examine HAS within the context of increased risk of HIV infection, we included participants of reproductive age (15-49 years old) from the general population as well as from key populations based on WHO categorization [].

Sexual intercourse is the main mode of HIV transmission among adults globally and sexual behaviour change, including use of condoms, is a key strategy to stem the spread of new infections [].